Synagogue Building 101 RULES OF THUMB
When building your house of worship here are the basics rules of thumb.
When purchasing land plan on 1 usable acre of paved, stripped parking for every 300 people. A paved, stripped parking area should be able to accommodate between 100-115 cars per usable acre and most building codes allocate 1 car per 3 people. Many local building codes may require islands of planted vegetation within the parking lot which reduces the number of cars per acre
A usable acre is one that does not contain non-buildable ground, such as wetlands, steep slopes, irregularly shaped property, ungradable hills, property that is not accessible, and or property which high tension power lines cross over and where cars are not allowed to drive under these power lines .
Parking Space Dimensions:
||9 feet by 18 feet
||8 feet by 18 feet with 5 foot access aisle
||8 feet by 18 feet with 8 foot access aisle
According to the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) these are the guidelines for required handicapped parking spaces within a parking lot.
||Required Minimum # of Accessible Spaces
|1 to 25
|26 to 50
|51 to 75
|76 to 100
|101 to 150
|151 to 200
|201 to 300
|301 to 400
|401 to 500
|501 to 1000
||2 percent of the total
||20 plus 1 for each 100 over 1000
The Synagogue Building
The most efficient plan for your synagogue will be in the shape of a rectangle other shapes will require more square footage per person as well as be more expensive to construct.
Seating Capacity per square foot per person
|Number of People
||Square Feet Per Person
|Up to 300
Depending on your worship style the dimensions used in this guide could change drastically.
Minimum Depth from rear wall to the front edge of the platform 7’0”
Recommend Depth 8’0” to 12’0”
Height - This varies greatly but on average 24” to 36”
Allow 20 25 square feet per instrument
Video Projection Screen(s)
Allow .12 times the distance to the farthest seat in the congregation
10 - 12% percent of congregation seating
Choir Platforms are generally constructed so that each platform is 3’ 4” which gives the choir member room to stand in front of their seat. The height of each choir riser should be a minimum of 6” and a maximum of 8”
The choir area should have an acoustically reflective floor not carpeting use hardwood, stone, vinyl or other material.
Fire Code allocates 18” per person in a pew, however reality dictates a more conservative 21” to 24” per person.
Spacing between rows of pews is 36” from the cap rail of one pew to the cap rail of the next pew.
Pew length 14 or 15 people maximum per pew. This rule is based on how quickly a pew can be evacuated in an emergency. Based on life safety codes, no more than 8 people from the middle of a pew or 15 people total.
The most expensive component of a pew is the end panel, thus the greater the distance between pew ends, the cheaper the pew is per person seated. It is a good idea to try to maximize pew length.
4’ minimum, however if you plan on holding weddings, funerals and other processions down the center aisle a minimum of 6’ to 8’ is more realistic.
2’6’ 3’8’ check local code
Theater seats are a very good option for thus congregations who need to maximize their seating area. Typically, installing theater seats over pews will Increase the seating capacity by 20%. Theater seats are able to be a more efficient user of space by reducing the amount of space allocated per person to 18” or 20” as well as by allowing the theater seats to be spaced closer together than pews are by code.
Theater seats are able to use space more efficiently by lessening the “envelope” or the distance from the back of the theater seat to the front of the theater seat once bucket or seat is raised. In many concert halls, the envelope is 18 inches or less, while movie theaters tend to have envelope spacing of a generous 20 to 23 inches.
With all of the theater seats in the raised position the “egress” or distance between one seat and the seat in front can be tighten to allow more rows of theater seats in the same foot print as a lesser amount of pews would fit.
Fully upholstered chairs with either metal or wooden frames have been a popular option for synagoguees thatrequire flexibility with their seating. Unlike pews and theater seats, these chairs are not fixed to the ground which allow for flexibility in the chair layout whenever needed. These chairs tend to be about half the cost of a theater seats and an even better value when compared to pews on a per seat basis. When planning a floor layout using synagogue chairs figure 24 inches width per person.
When purchasing sanctuary seating, cost should not be the most important consideration. Since your seating decision will be something you’ll be living with for at least a generation, purchase the best seats available.
Choose the type of seating that works best for your worship style whether traditional pews, flexible synagogue chairs or theater seats, it is a very wise investment to purchase the best.
Pews - depending on pew end, body style and length - $85 per seat.
Theater seats $100 to $125 per seat on average
Metal frame synagogue chairs - $25 to over $100 per chair
Wooden frame synagogue chairs - $85 to over $100 per chair
Requirements will vary by local code. The following requirements from the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) may be used as guidelines for worship centers with fixed seating.
|Capacity of Seating In Assembly Area
||Number of Required
|4 to 25
|26 to 50
|51 to 300
|301 to 500
||6, plus 1 additional space for each total seating capacity increase of 100
Capacity: Less than 50 percent of main floor seating
Rise depth: 3 feet 6 inches for first row,
3 feet 4 inches for the back row
3 feet 2 inches for other rows
Cross aisles: 4 feet minimum
Other aisles: Same as aisle width on main floor
When designing a Sunday school classroom calculate 25 square feet per child. If classroom is also to be used for a day school increase to 35 square feet per child or as required by local building code.
Most classrooms are designed to accommodate no more than 30 children seated at desks will require 40 square feet per person. Larger synagoguees requiring greater flexibility in their classroom design should program 45’ to 55’ square feet per person.
Administrative Offices & Other Rooms
Rabbi’s study 250 325 square feet
Administrative offices 150 to 225 square feet
Meeting rooms 15- 25 square feet per person
Music Library 1 to 2 square feet per person
Choir rehearsal room -15 to 20 square feet per person
Orchestral rehearsal room - 25 square feet per person
Robing Rooms 4 to 6 square feet per person
Kitchen and Fellowship Hall
Kitchen should be sized to accommodate use when in full service. Needs to be designed according to local codes.
Fellowship Hall should be sized to accommodate ½ of the sanctuary seating capacity.
Playground 75 square feet per child
Volleyball requires approximately .7 acre -30’ x 60’ plus 6 feet around perimeter
Softball requires approximately 1 acre 60’ x 60’ home plat to outfield fence 200’
Foot ball requires approximately 1.5 acres field 160’ x 300’
Soccer requires approximately 1.8 to 2.0 acres. Field 225’ by 360’